A security relevant change is any change to a systemâs configuration, environment, information content, functionality, or users which has the potential to change the risk imposed upon its continued operations. A device that converts digital data to human-readable text on physical paper. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. This glossary provides a central resource of terms and definitions most commonly used in NIST information security publications and in CNSS information assurance publications. Business Continuity Management refers to preparing for and maintaining continued business operations following disruption or crisis. It is frequently referred to as a WAP (wireless access point). TERMS OF REFERENCE 1. A T1, T3 is a digital circuit using TDM (Time-Division Multiplexing). Even if it does not cause outright damage, a worm replicating out of control can exponentially consume system resources like memory and bandwidth until a system becomes unstable and unusable. Security Policy is a set of rules and practices that specify how a system or organization delivers security services to protect sensitive and critical information. Thus, by restricting access to information, data the risk to business objectives is limited. High impact is the loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability that could be expected to have a severe or catastrophic adverse effect on organizational operations, organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, or the national security interests of the United States; (i.e., 1) causes a severe degradation in mission capability to an extent and duration that the organization is able to perform its primary functions, but the effectiveness of the functions is significantly reduced; 2) results in major damage to organizational assets; 3) results in major financial loss; or 4) results in severe or catastrophic harm to individuals involving loss of life or serious life threatening injuries). UDP is a connectionless protocol so there is no equivalent to a TCP SYN packet. Employees use devices for personal use and as they gain wide acceptance, even organizations start using such technologies. Use of fieldbus technologies eliminates the need of point-to-point wiring between the controller and each device. A threat is a possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to violate security protocols and cause possible harm. A successful Denial of Service attack can cripple any entity that relies on its online presence by rendering their site virtually useless. A rootkit is a malicious malware programme that allows the attacker to gain administrator access to a network. identity fraud — A form of identity theft in which a transaction, typically financial, is performed using the stolen identity of another individual. ACLs make packet filtering decisions based on Source IP address only. The read-only memory from which a boot program is loaded stores a state. War dialing is a technique of using a modem to automatically scan a list of telephone numbers, usually dialing every number in a local area code to search for computers, bulletin board systems (computer servers), and fax machines. Any program on the list is prohibited from executing while any other program, whether benign or malicious, is allowed to execute by default. OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) — An Internet community focused on understanding web technologies and exploitations. 4.4 Transparency The members and Chair of the reference group are subject to the requirement of confidentiality pursuant Most cloud computing systems are based on remote virtualization where the application or operating environment offered to customers is hosted on the cloud provider's computer hardware. "â¢, and "CyberCheckup"â¢ are trademarks of CyberPolicy, Inc. An access path is a process where a specified quantity of material moves as a unit between work stations, while maintaining its unique identity. A port scan consists of sending a message to each port, one at a time. A zero day vulnerability refers to a hole in software that is unknown to the vendor. MAC addresses are used in the media access control protocol sub-layer of the OSI reference model. Applications use the registry API to retrieve, modify, or delete registry data. (See blacklist.). Time to Live (TTL) or the hop limit is a mechanism that limits the lifespan of data in a computer or network. An embedded cryptosystem is a system performing or controlling a function as an integral element of a larger system or subsystem. A Servo Valve is an actuated valve whose position is controlled using a servo actuator. A dictionary attack is a password-cracking attack that tries all of the words in a dictionary. A reverse proxy is a device or service that is placed between a client and a server in a network. The incident team meets regularly to review status reports and to authorize specific remedies. Cybersecurity Community of Practice Terms of Reference Purpose. Examples: NIPRNet, SIPRNet. An Internet Standard is characterised by technical reliability and usefulness. 2.1 The Committee shall comprise at least members. A single loop controller controls a very small process or a critical process. Secret Key (symmetric) Cryptographic Algorithm is a cryptographic algorithm that uses a single secret key for both encryption and decryption. (2017, March 18). ii) Personnel security (vetting and aftercare of employees and contractors) iii) Cyber security (security in the digital age and of prime concern to government). A state machine is any device that stores the status of something at a given time, and can change this status based on inputs. A hacker is a expert programmer who uses computer systems to gain unauthorized access to a computer system. Any threat to such basic systems would push the entire organization in to jeopardy. Automated Email Ingest feature allows users to create structured, actionable threat intelligence with ease from emails originating from trusted sources and sharing partners or from suspected spearphishing emails. The MD5 message-digest algorithm is the most widely used cryptographic hash function producing a 128-bit (16-byte) hash value, typically expressed in text format as a 32 digit hexadecimal number. Electronic commerce or ecommerce is any type of business, or commercial transaction, that involves the transfer of information across the Internet. SIEM helps to automatically identify systems that are out of compliance with the security policy as well as to notify the IRT (Incident Response Team) of any security violating events. to 1 .255.255.255 (1 /8 prefix) 172.16. . A network host is a device connected to a computer network. Spyware can be legitimate in that it is operated by an advertising and marketing agency for the purpose of gathering customer demographics. A one-way function is any function that is easy to compute on every input, but hard to invert given the image of a random input. In particular, an antivirus software is designed to detect and potentially eliminate viruses before they have a chance to create substantial damage in the system. Applications Now Available for City Colleges of Chicago’s New Cyber Security “Boot Camp”. Members of the three . If a country's critical infrastructure is destroyed, it will have severe negative impact on national security, economic stability, citizen safety and health, transportation and communications. A token ring network is a local area network in which all computers are connected in a ring or star topology and a binary digit or token-passing scheme is used in order to prevent the collision of data between two computers that want to send messages at the same time. Most devices on a network respond by sending a reply to the source IP address. Password sniffing is a technique used to gain knowledge of passwords that involves monitoring traffic on a network to pull out information. Their approach includes understanding attacks in order to know how to defend against them. A network host may offer information resources, services, and applications to users or other nodes on the network. Computer fraud is a computer crime that an intruder commits to obtain money or something of value from a company. An IaaS solution enables a customer to select which operating systems to install into virtual machines/nodes as well as the structure of the network including use of virtual switches, routers and firewalls. Outsourcing is often used to obtain best-of-breed level service rather than settling for good-enough internal operations. Softwares can be used for automatic password sniffing. This is done by sending a SYN (synchronization) packet, as if to initiate a three-way handshake, to every port on the server. SIS is a system that is composed of sensors, logic solvers, and final control elements whose purpose is to take the process to a safe state when predetermined conditions are violated. Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) makes certain resources servers, etc., available to everyone, yet keeping the internal LAN access private, safe and secure offering access only to authorized personnel. With YARA you can create descriptions of malware families (or whatever you want to describe) based on textual or binary patterns. Discretionary Access Control is a security measure, by which the owner can restrict the access of the resources such as files, devices, directories to specific subjects or users or user groups based on their identity. Hacktivism is often viewed by attackers as a form of protest or fighting for their perceived “right” or “justice.” However, it is still an illegal action in most cases when the victim’s technology or data is abused, harmed or destroyed. A declaration issued by an interested party that specified requirements have been met. A worm can become devastating if not isolated and removed. A Protocol Analyzer is a device or software application that enables the user to analyze the performance of network data so as to ensure that the network and its associated hardware/software are operating within network specifications. A key is a number defined by its length in binary digits. to encrypt or encode). Digital thieves then use robot networks of thousands of zombie computers to carry out attacks on other people and cover up their tracks. In database management system (RDBMS) terminology, access path refers to the path chosen by the system to retrieve data after a SQL request is executed. The recorded events are compared against security policy and behavioral baselines to evaluate compliance and/or discover violations. It usually connects via a router. Encapsulation Security Payload offers data integrity and protection services by encrypting data, anti-replay, and preserving it in its assigned IP. An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer hardware and software resources to support the computer's basic functions. A session key is a key that is temporary. Compartments, caveats, and release markings are examples of security attributes. randomize testing tools) to locate previously unknown bugs in order to craft new exploits. Valid factors for authentication include Type 1: Something you know such as passwords and PINs; Type 2: Something you have such as smart cards or OTP (One Time Password) devices; and Type 3: Someone you are such as fingerprints or retina scans (aka biometrics). The name is derived from the term demilitarised zone. This type of attack is psychological and aims to either gain access to information or to a logical or physical environment. However, spyware can also be operated by attackers using the data gathering tool to steal an identity or learn enough about a victim to harm them in other ways. 2. Firewalls are installed and run on individual computers. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A system or application output file, database, document, or Web page are also considered data assets. Glossary of cyber security terms The technical terms in this glossary are not comprehensive, they are intended only as a basic aid to understanding the pages on this website. It interrupts the operations of a network. Security Procesures is a set of detailed instructions, configurations and recommendations to implement company's security policies. A bot is a software ârobotâ that performs an extensive set of automated tasks on its own. It is the entry or exit point from a computer for connecting communications or peripheral devices. any act that ither prevents the failure or malfunction of equipment or restores its operating capability. A response is information that is sent in response to a request or sitimulus. The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet. Risk Management is the process of managing risks to agency operations, assets, or individuals resulting from the operation of an information system. A decryption key isÂ a piece of code that is required to decipher or convert encrypted text or information into plain text or information. Active defense refers to a process, whereby an individual or organization takes an active role to identify and mitigate threats to the network and its systems. Intrusion Prevention System is a system that can detect an intrusive activity and can also attempt to stop the activity, ideally before it reaches its targets. Threat Intelligence Information about specific impending attacks against the organization and is initially consumed by higher level security. However, if a UDP packet is sent to a port that is not open, the system will respond with an ICMP port unreachable message. the original form of normal standard data) into ciphertext (i.e. Here, you’ll find definitions of terms commonly used in the security industry. POS (Point of Sale) intrusions — An attack that gains access to the POS (Point of Sale) devices at a retail outlet enabling an attacker to learn payment card information as well as other customer details. This makes it possible to weaken the program or system or cause it to crash. A system that has more than one network interface card must have IP forwarding turned on in order for the system to be able to act as a router. Information Warfare (IW) is primarily a United States Military concept that involves the use and management of information and communication technology in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. Often, all traces of the crime are covered up. The Morris Worm ( Internet worm) program was written by a graduate student at Cornell University, Robert Tappan Morris, and launched on November 2, 1988 from MIT. Rules are a different methodology for performing detection, which bring the advantage of up window. These markup states the browser how to display a web page to the user. When a password has n-bits of guessing entropy then an attacker has as much difficulty guessing the average password as in guessing an n-bit random quantity. security control — Anything used as part of a security response strategy which addresses a threat in order to reduce risk. Alternatively, it may stay dormant, waiting for a hacker to access it remotely and take control of the system. SCADA Server is the device that acts as the master in a scada system. The main functions of intrusion prevention systems are to identify malicious activity, log information about this activity, attempt to block/stop it, and report it. In cryptography, a certificate authority is an entity that issues digital certificates. The DDOS is more devastating than a Denial of Service attack launched from a single system, flooding the target server with a speed and volume that is exponentially magnified. A group authenticator is used sometimes in addition to a sign-on authenticator, to allow access to specific data or functions that may be shared by all members of a particular group. security perimeter — The boundary of a network or private environment where specific security policies and rules are enforced. Static routing is a form of routing that occurs when a router uses a manually-configured routing entry, rather than information from a dynamic routing traffic. A hybrid attack is a blend of both a dictionary attack method as well as brute force attack. Data loss occurs when a storage device is lost or stolen. "Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) is a cryptographic hash function designed by the United States National Security Agency and is a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard published by the United States NIST. An encryption system protects the privacy of data exchanged by a website and the individual user. URL Obfuscation is when scammers use phishing emails to guide recipients to fraudulent sites with names very similar to established sites. This form of authentication requires the visitor provide their username (i.e. HoneyClient is state-based and detects attacks on Windows clients by monitoring files, process events, and registry entries. Hashing is a a system of generating string values with the help of algorithms to maintain data integrity and accuracy. Internet Standards are created and published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It also contains nearly all of the terms and definitions from CNSSI-4009. In both cases, data is accessible to those who should not have access. For intelligence information, security markings could include compartment and sub-compartment indicators and handling restrictions. However, private cloud (internally hosted), community cloud (a group of companies' privately hosted cloud), a hosted private cloud (the cloud servers are owned and managed by a third party but hosted in the facility of the customer) and hybrid cloud (a mixture of public and private) are also options. A Tunnel is a communication channel that is created in a computer network by encapsulating a protocol's data packets in a different type of protocol. A fake wireless Internet hot spot that looks like a legitimate service. Malicious code is any code in any part of a software system or script that is intended to cause undesired effects, security breaches, or damage to a system. During incidents, they properly assess the incident and make decisions regarding the proper course of action. This concept may employ a combination of tactical information, assurance(s) that the information is valid, spreading of propaganda or disinformation to demoralise or manipulate the enemy and the public, undermining the quality of opposing force information and denial of information-collection opportunities to opposing forces. This allows you and your team to focus your time and effort on real threats. A subnet mask is used to determine the number of bits that are used for the subnet and host portions of the address. outsider threat — The likelihood or potential that an outside entity, such as an ex-employee, competitor or even an unhappy customer, may pose a risk to the stability or security of an organization. On the Internet, a digital signature is used not only to ensure that a message or document has been electronically signed by the person, but also, since a digital signature can only be created by one person, to ensure that a person cannot later deny that they furnished the signature. spoof (spoofing) — The act of falsifying the identity of the source of a communication or interaction. critical infrastructure — The physical or virtual systems and assets that are vital to an organization or country. Security Control Assessment is the testing and/or evaluation of the management, operational, and technical security controls in an information system to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements. Security markings are human-readable indicators applied to a document, storage media, or hardware component to designate security classification, categorization, and/or handling restrictions applicable to the information contained therein. ), pen testing — A means of security evaluation where automated tools and manual exploitations are performed by security and attack experts. A blended threat is a computer network attack that tries to maximize the severity of damage by combining various attack methods. Fault Tolerant refers to the ability of a system to have built in capability to provide continued, correct execution of its assigned function in the presence of a hardware and/or software fault. The easiest way is to use a screen saver that engages either on request or after a specified short period of time. Data mining can be a discovery of individual important data items, a summary or overview of numerous data items or a consolidation or clarification of a collection of data items. © 2020 Global Knowledge Training LLC. A keylogger is a spyware that is designed to log every keystroke made on a computer. An attack in which an attacker takes over a domain by first blocking access to the domain's DNS server and then putting his own server up in its place. An analog is a transmission signal that varies in signal strength (amplitude) or frequency (time). A hacker may be ethical and authorized (the original definition) or may be malicious and unauthorized (the altered but current use of the term). A script is a file containing active content such as commands or instructions that are executed by the computer. An insider is an entity inside the security perimeter that is authorized to access system resources but uses them in a way not approved by those who granted the authorization. Masquerade attacks are generally performed by using either stolen passwords and logons, locating gaps in programs, or finding a way around the authentication process. Statements of security capability to: (i) build in additional, but related, functionality to a security control; and/or (ii) increase the strength of the control. Personal data relating to an identifiable living individual. Overload is defined as the limitation of system operation by excessive burden on the performance capabilities of a system component. NIST's activities are organized into laboratory programs that include Nanoscale Science and Technology, Engineering, Information Technology, Neutron Research, Material Measurement, and Physical Measurement. The SaaS provider is responsible for maintaining the application. A macro virus is a malware (ie malicious software) that uses the macro capabilities of common applications such as spreadsheets and word processors to infect data. data integrity — A security benefit that verifies data is unmodified and therefore original, complete and intact. It also employs methods to calculate the risk impact and eliminate the impact. A security test and evaluation is an examination and analysis of the safeguards required to protect an information system, as they have been applied in an operational environment, to determine the security posture of that system. These terms of reference set out the membership, responsibilities, authority and operations of the Cybersecurity Community of Practice of HISA. This causes data stored in those buffers to be overwritten, and triggering unpredictable consequences. POS intrusions can occur against a traditional brick-and-mortar retail location as well as any online retail websites. A system or an algorithm to encrypt plain text to secret code or cipher text to protect the privacy of information stored. Spammers gather lists of email addresses, which they use to bombard users with this unsolicited mail. Security requirements baseline is the description of the minimum requirements necessary for an information system to maintain an acceptable level of risk. The reference model defines seven layers of functions that take place at each end of a communication. The name associated with a particular computer user. When the host file or MBR is accessed, it activates the virus enabling it to infect other objects. A control algorithm is a mathematical representation of the control action to be performed. watch for programs that have behaviors that are different from the normal baseline of behavior of the system), and heuristic detection (i.e. CybOX (cyber observable expression) is standard language for cyber observables (i.e. Uncover knowledge areas in which you excel and where you want to expand. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). cyber ecosystem — The collection of computers, networks, communication pathways, ... A purple team or white team is either used as a reference between the attack/red and defense/blue teams; ... and guidelines. Malicious payload is almost always malicious. An organization's cybersecurity should be defined in a security policy, verified through evaluation techniques (such as vulnerability assessment and penetration testing) and revised, updated and improved over time as the organization evolves and as new threats are discovered. These facilities include offices and data processing centers. An end cryptographic unit is a device that (1) performs cryptographic functions, (2) typically is part of a larger system for which the device provides security services, and (3) from the viewpoint of a supporting security infrastructure (e.g., a key management system), is the lowest level of identifiable component with which a management transaction can be conducted. A security token may be a physical device that an authorized user is given to access a system or network. Certificate Management is the process in which certificates are generated, used, transmitted, loaded and destroyed. NGIPS (next generation intrusion prevention system) offers protection against advanced and evasive targeted attacks with high accuracy. A steady state is a characteristic of a condition, such as value, rate, periodicity, or amplitude, exhibiting only negligible change over an arbitrarily long period of time. The attack tricks the victim into clicking on a hyperlink to visit a company website only to be re-directed to a false version of the website operated by attackers. Personal firewalls is a software that controls network traffic to and from a computer. After IOCs have been identified in a process of incident response and computer forensics, they can be used for early detection of future attack attempts using intrusion detection systems and antivirus software. Traceroute is a tool the maps the route a packet takes from the local machine to a remote destination. A high impact system is an information system in which at least one security objective (i.e., confidentiality, integrity, or availability) is assigned a FIPS 199 potential impact value of high. Python is a widely used high-level programming language for general-purpose programming, created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. The additional step could be receiving a text message with a code, then typing that code back into the website for confirmation. A guard that has two basic functional capabilities:Â a Message Guard and a Directory Guard. These rights can be assigned to a particular client, server, folder, specific programs or data files. It is used as a screen of numbers used for routing traffic within a subnet. BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) — A company’s security policy dictating whether or not workers can bring in their own devices into the work environment, whether or not such devices can be connected to the company network and to what extent that connection allows interaction with company resources. DLP aims at preventing such occurrences through various techniques such as strict access controls on resources, blocking the use of email attachments, preventing network file exchange to external systems, blocking cut-and-paste, disabling use of social networks and encrypting stored data. Any IP network device has the capability to send, receive or process ICMP messages. It includes any and all attacks and abuses known for any type of computer system or software product. High Assurance Guard is an enclave boundary protection device that controls access between a local area network that an enterprise system has a requirement to protect, and an external network that is outside the control of the enterprise system, with a high degree of assurance. In these terms of reference: "Board" means the board of directors of the Company; "Committee" means the cyber security committee of the Board; and “Group” means the Company and its subsidiaries. Y2K is a warning first published by Bob Bemer in 1971 describing the issues of computers using a two-digit year date stamp. The socket tells a host's IP stack where to plug in a data stream so that it connects to the right application. A policy that directs all personnel to clear their desks at the end of each working day, and file everything appropriately. Windowing is the process of taking a small subset of a larger dataset for processing and analysis. The stack is also called a pushdown stack or first-in last-out circuit. Promote the availability of data for authorized use. Data leakage occurs when copies of data is possessed by unauthorized entities. 1 Constitution and purpose 1.1 The purpose of the University Information Governance and Security Group is to This is referred to as Private Address Space and is defined in RFC 1918. Threats can contain programs, often referred to as payloads that perform malicious activities such as denial-of-service attacks, destruction or modification of data, changes to system settings, and information disclosure. All computer programs require an operating system to provide the fundamental controls for controlling the computer.
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