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(Oct. 24, 2015) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/decoding-antikythera-mechanism-first-computer-180953979/?no-ist, Marchant, Jo. Once the storm passed, they decided to scout the area for sponges be… [5][8][67], The Exeligmos train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m3, e3, e4, f1, f2, g1, g2, h1, h2, and i1, which mounts the pointer. Mechanical engineer Michael Wright demonstrated that there was a mechanism to supply the lunar phase in addition to the position. There is no coaxial system but only for the Moon. [6], In 2008, continued research by the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project suggested that the concept for the mechanism may have originated in the colonies of Corinth, since they identified the calendar on the Metonic Spiral as coming from Corinth or one of its colonies in northwest Greece or Sicily. Network Awesome. [62] The inscriptions on each one of the four divisions are:[5][8], The Saros dial is the main lower spiral dial on the rear of the mechanism. While the device itself may have struggled with inaccuracies due to the triangular teeth being hand-made, the calculations used and the technology implemented to create the elliptical paths of the planets and retrograde motion of the Moon and Mars by using a clockwork-type gear train with the addition of a pin-and-slot epicyclic mechanism predated that of the first known clocks found in antiquity in Medieval Europe by more than 1000 years. Michael Wright was the first person to design and build a model with not only the known mechanism, but also, with his emulation of a potential planetarium system. "Resumen en castellano al final" For those who doesn't know The Antikythera Mechanism is an artifact found in 1900 in the coast of the greek Antikythera island, once studied it was dated to be from 200 B.C. In 1929 Captain Ioannis Theopanidis attempted to create a model of the Antikythera Mechanism. It has a computed modelled rotational period of exactly four years, as expected. Feb. 17, 2015. (representing the number zero, assumed, not yet observed), H (number 8) means add 8 hours to the time mentioned in the display, Iϛ (number 16) means add 16 hours to the time mentioned in the display, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 17:05. [16] A five-year programme of investigations began in 2014 and ended in October 2019, with a new five-year session starting in May 2020. February 2015. [63], The Exeligmos Dial is the secondary lower dial on the rear of the mechanism. It is unlikely that any one of these machines was the Antikythera mechanism found in the shipwreck since both the devices fabricated by Archimedes and mentioned by Cicero were located in Rome at least 30 years later than the estimated date of the shipwreck, and the third device was almost certainly in the hands of Posidonius by that date. The Antikythera mechanism (/ˌæntɪkɪˈθɪərə/ AN-tə-kə-THEER-ə) is an ancient Greek hand-powered orrery, described as the first analogue computer,[1] the oldest known example of such a device[2][3][4] used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance. [5][6][7] It could also be used to track the four-year cycle of athletic games which was similar to an Olympiad, the cycle of the ancient Olympic Games. The parapegma above the dials reads (square brackets indicate inferred text): At least two pointers indicated positions of bodies upon the ecliptic. Thus the basic operation of the device is no longer a mystery and has been replicated accurately. The bars could have been full gears, although there is no need for the waste of metal, since the only working part is the slot. Nobody's sure who built the incredible Antikythera Mechanism, an intricate and fascinating ancient Greek artifact that served as a type of calendar. [citation needed]. And let the Sun be golden, the Moon silver, Kronos [Saturn] of obsidian, Ares [Mars] of reddish onyx, Aphrodite [Venus] lapis lazuli veined with gold, Hermes [Mercury] turquoise; let Zeus [Jupiter] be of (whitish?) The year is not selectable, so it is necessary to know the year currently set, or by looking up the cycles indicated by the various calendar cycle indicators on the back in the Babylonian ephemeris tables for the day of the year currently set, since most of the calendar cycles are not synchronous with the year. This was the only visual pointer naturally travelling in the counter-clockwise direction. Weird & Wacky, Copyright © 2020 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company. Fragment 19 contains significant back door inscriptions including one reading "... 76 years ..." which refers to the Callippic cycle. It showed both solar and lunar eclipses. Not so handily, researchers had to do a lot of work to get to it. Freeth and Jones note that the inevitable "looseness" in the mechanism due to the hand-built gears, with their triangular teeth and the frictions between gears, and in bearing surfaces, probably would have swamped the finer solar and lunar correction mechanisms built into it: Though the engineering was remarkable for its era, recent research indicates that its design conception exceeded the engineering precision of its manufacture by a wide margin—with considerable cumulative inaccuracies in the gear trains, which would have cancelled out many of the subtle anomalies built into its design.[6][70]. The scientists who have reconstructed the Antikythera mechanism also agree that it was too sophisticated to have been a unique device. [6], The mechanism was operated by turning a small hand crank (now lost) which was linked via a crown gear to the largest gear, the four-spoked gear visible on the front of fragment A, the gear named b1. A model based on Derek Price'swork was built in the 1980s by Robert Deroski and donated by Price to the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. Other small pieces have broken off in the interim from cleaning and handling,[49] and still others were found on the sea floor by the Cousteau expedition. The mean Sun position is, by definition, the current date. They came up with a compact and feasible solution to the question of planetary indication. It also contains remnants of the mechanism's wooden housing. Information on the specific data gleaned from the ruins by the latest inquiries is detailed in the supplement to Freeth's 2006 Nature article. A bar with a slot along its length extends from the pin toward the appropriate coaxial tube, at whose other end is the object pointer, out in front of the front dials. Let the stars be set upon the board in accordance with [their] nature except for the Sun and Moon. How was this ancient 'computer' discovered? [21]:6 In addition, the inner lines at the cardinal points of the Saros dial indicate the start of a new full moon cycle. In 1900, a group of Greek sponge divers were sailing back to Symi, an island in the Rhodes region of Southern Greece. Their ship was in a channel north of Crete, near the small island of Antikythera. [8] Inscriptions on the instrument closely match the names of the months that are used on calendars from Epirus in northwestern Greece and with the island of Corfu, which in antiquity was known as Corcyra. [86] In 2012 BBC Four aired The Two-Thousand-Year-Old Computer;[87] it was also aired on 3 April 2013 in the United States on NOVA, the PBS science series, under the name Ancient Computer. [8][21] The back door appears to be the "instruction manual". [6], It is very probable that there were planetary dials, as the complicated motions and periodicities of all planets are mentioned in the manual of the mechanism. [6] This lack of evidence and nature of the front part of the mechanism has led to numerous attempts to emulate what the Greeks of the period would have done and, of course, because of the lack of evidence many solutions have been put forward. [35] Its construction relied on theories of astronomy and mathematics developed by Greek astronomers during the second century BC, and it is estimated to have been built in the late second century BC[5] or the early first century BC. Each of the three mechanisms can fit within a quadrant of the b1 extension, and they are thus all on a single plane parallel with the front dial plate. [26], Captain Dimitrios Kontos (Δημήτριος Κοντός) and a crew of sponge divers from Symi island discovered the Antikythera shipwreck during the spring of 1900, and recovered artefacts during the first expedition with the Hellenic Royal Navy, in 1900–01. The Metonic cycle, defined in several physical units, is 235 synodic months, which is very close (to within less than 13 one-millionths) to 19 tropical years. "Decoding the Antikythera Mechanism, the First Computer." The first task, then, is to rotate the Egyptian calendar ring to match the current zodiac points. The disc has four "ears" which have holes in them, and it was thought by some that it may have been part of the Antikythera Mechanism itself, as a "cog wheel". The teeth probably were created from a blank bronze round using hand tools; this is evident because not all of them are even. The gears k1 and k2 form an epicyclic gear system; they are an identical pair of gears that don't mesh, but rather, they operate face-to-face, with a short pin on k1 inserted into a slot in k2. The so-called Antikythera Youth is just one more magnificent treasure recovered from the ancient shipwreck. Price, Derek de Solla (1974). your own Pins on Pinterest [8] However, it was demonstrated in 2017 that the calendar on the Metonic Spiral is indeed of the Corinthian type but cannot be that of Syracuse. The Antikythera mechanism (Fragment A–Front and Rear); visible is the largest gear in the mechanism, approximately 13 centimetres (5.1 in) in diameter. He included pointers for this "true sun", Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, in addition to the known "mean sun" (current time) and lunar pointers. [19][20] The largest gear is approximately 13 centimetres (5.1 in) in diameter and originally had 223 teeth.[21]. Glyphs in 51 of the 223 synodic month cells of the dial specify the occurrence of 38 lunar and 27 solar eclipses. They mark the locations of longitudes on the ecliptic for specific stars. Thus, setting the correct solar time (in days) on the front panel indicates the current lunar month on the back panel, with resolution to within a week or so. [5], On the front face of the mechanism there is a fixed ring dial representing the ecliptic, the twelve zodiacal signs marked off with equal 30-degree sectors. If Cicero's account is correct, then this technology existed as early as the 3rd century BC. I have just finished building my own Antikythera Mechanism thanks to your wonderful instructions and dedication to such a device. The Antikythera Mechanism: A Calendar Computer from ca. [65] Their proposal centred on what they observed as irregular spacing of the inscriptions on the front dial face, which to them seemed to indicate an off-centre sun indicator arrangement; this would simplify the mechanism by removing the need to simulate the solar anomaly. Translated into global spin, that means an eclipse occurs not only eight hours later, but one-third of a rotation farther to the west. [64], Evans et al. [60], The Callippic dial is the left secondary upper dial, which follows a 76-year cycle. As is known today from Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion, the moon travels at different speeds as it orbits the Earth, and this speed differential is modelled by the Antikythera Mechanism, even though the ancient Greeks were not aware of the actual elliptical shape of the orbit.[73]. [6] For each of the three systems there is an epicyclic gear whose axis is mounted on b1, thus the basic frequency is the Earth year (as it is, in truth, for epicyclic motion in the Sun and all the planets—excepting only the Moon). The Metonic dial covers 235 months in five rotations of the dial, following a spiral track with a follower on the pointer that keeps track of the layer of the spiral. 550,00 € 440,00 € It is the first calculating machine in history. [5][8][67], The system also models the phases of the Moon. [23] All known fragments of the Antikythera mechanism are now kept at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, along with a number of artistic reconstructions and replicas[24][25] of the mechanism to demonstrate how it may have looked and worked. In addition to this important minor fragment, 15 further minor fragments have remnants of inscriptions on them. [15][16] Moreover, according to Carman and Evans, the Babylonian arithmetic style of prediction fits much better with the device's predictive models than the traditional Greek trigonometric style. This fragment also contains the Moon indicator dial assembly including the Moon phase sphere in its housing and a single bevel gear (ma1) used in the Moon phase indication system. This model was never finished. The "natural" view is viewing the side of the Mechanism the dial/pointer in question is actually displayed on. This website brings to together all relevant information, like publications and videos, about the ancient Antikythera mechanism. Other inscriptions seem to describe the function of the back dials. A combination of fragments taken from fragment C while cleaning. [5][8][67], Apparently, gears m3, n1-3, p1-2, and q1 did not survive in the wreckage. The data to support this function is available given the Sun and Moon positions as angular rotations; essentially, it is the angle between the two, translated into the rotation of the ball. This is not due to inaccuracies in gearing ratios in the mechanism, but rather to inadequacies in the Greek theory of planetary movements. Also on the zodiac dial are a number of single characters at specific points (see reconstruction here:[53]). It was constructed between 150-200 BCE and was used to calculate the exact position of the Sun, the Moon and possibly the planets in the sky. It turns with a modelled rotational period of 29.53 days; the modern value for the synodic month is 29.530589 days. [5][8][67], The Callippic train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, n1, n3, p1, p2, and q1, which mounts the pointer. This matched with the Babylonian custom of assigning one twelfth of the ecliptic to each zodiac sign equally, even though the constellation boundaries were variable. They proposed that rather than bearings and pillars for gears and axles, they simply held weather and seasonal icons to be displayed through a window. They were both built by Archimedes and brought to Rome by the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus after the death of Archimedes at the siege of Syracuse in 212 BC. "Calendars with Olympiad display and eclipse prediction on the Antikythera Mechanism". [6], Evans, Carman, and Thorndike published a solution with significant differences from Wright's. [5][8][67], The Olympiad train is driven by b1, b2, l1, l2, m1, m2, n1, n2, and o1, which mounts the pointer. From shop VisualDesign . The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project", "Jacques-Yves Cousteau – Antikythera Mechanism Research Project", "Important New Discoveries from Greece's Ancient Antikythera Shipwreck", "The new findings from the underwater archaeological research at the Antikythera Shipwreck", "The Cosmos on the front of the Antikythera Mechanism", "The Antikythera Mechanism and the early history of the moon phase display", "Discovering how Greeks computed in 100 B.C. [21]:8, A table of the gears, their teeth, and the expected and computed rotations of various important gears follows. In addition to theoretical accuracy, there is the matter of mechanical accuracy. Cicero also said that another such device was built "recently" by his friend Posidonius, "... each one of the revolutions of which brings about the same movement in the Sun and Moon and five wandering stars [planets] as is brought about each day and night in the heavens ..."[79]. The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. The crank mechanism socket and the side-mounted gear that meshes with b1 is on, Contains approximately the bottom right third of the Metonic spiral and inscriptions of both the spiral and back door of the mechanism. Found in 2005 and contains 16 inscriptions from the lower right of the Saros spiral. [8][9][10], This artefact was retrieved from the sea in 1901, and identified on 17 May 1902 as containing a gear by archaeologist Valerios Stais,[11] among wreckage retrieved from a shipwreck off the coast of the Greek island Antikythera. [28] It is not known how the mechanism came to be on the cargo ship, but it has been suggested that it was being taken from Rhodes to Rome, together with other looted treasure, to support a triumphal parade being staged by Julius Caesar. [41] Another theory suggests that coins found by Jacques Cousteau at the wreck site in the 1970s date to the time of the device's construction, and posits that its origin may have been from the ancient Greek city of Pergamon,[42] home of the Library of Pergamum. [55][56][57], On the back of the mechanism, there are five dials: the two large displays, the Metonic and the Saros, and three smaller indicators, the so-called Olympiad Dial,[8] which has recently been renamed the Games dial as it did not track Olympiad years (the four-year cycle it tracks most closely is the Halieiad),[10] the Callippic, and the Exeligmos.

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