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Pacific spider mite; Twospotted spider mite; True bugs. Wax Scales (Japanese, Florida, or Indian wax scale) Ceroplastes spp. P. innumerabilis can be found on all species of maples (Acer spp.) Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide, only controls soft scales. The success or failure of control efforts may not be readily apparent but here are some things to check. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Scale insects can be attacked by a variety of lady beetles, predatory mites, and small parasitic wasps. 859-257-4772, Students   /   Japanese maple. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE is an insect pest of maples, especially silver maples and locust trees primarily, but also will infest several other species. By late May or early June the female scale has matured and begins to lay hundreds of eggs within a white frothy wax. These scales also produce large amounts of liquid waste (honeydew) so leaves may be shiny and sticky and black sooty mold fungus may cover branches and the trunk. Consequently, they may not be effective where several … During the summer, the scale enlarges by secreting wax resulting in a body several times greater than the overwintering form. Proper timing of insecticide applications is a major key to success. Of course, ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS FOR SAFE USE OF ANY PESTICIDE! … The insects feed on foliage, reducing vigor of the plant and causing twig dieback. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. It is also known to be able to survive on honey and black locust, white ash, Euonymus, oak, boxelder, dogwood, hackberry, sycamore, beech, elm, willow, basswood, and poplar. Honeydew on Japanese maple The majority of acer bugs leave behind sooty substances called honeydew on plants. You can find these now on their most common hosts: maple and dogwood. Egg sacs may grow to as large as 1/2 inch in diameter and may contain up to 1000 eggs. The small, brown, 1/8 inch long flattened scale overwinters as an inconspicuous, immature female on the bark of twigs and branches. Digital Media Library, Images: University of Kentucky Entomology, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment. Philanthropy & Alumni Cottony Maple Leaf Scale is one of several cottony scales in the genus Pulvinaria. Departments & Units   /   Mature cottony cushion scale females on bark. P. innumerabilis can be found on all species of maples (Acer spp.) However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case … The cottony white egg sacs of this soft scale appear on undersides of leaves (Figure 1) in May and egg hatch (Figure 2) occurs during June. … New foliage of infested plants should have a healthier appearance once the scale burden has been removed. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. Live scales should produce a liquid when mashed, dead scales will be dry and not "bleed" when crushed. Pesticide recommendations in this publication are registered for use in Kentucky, USA ONLY! In the United States, it was first found on the east coast, but is rapidly expanding its range. Cottony Maple Scale. In some cases, the scales are quite numerous. Just before leaf drop, the small insects will move back to twigs and branches to spend the winter. In early summer mature females begin to secrete white, waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs in which they lay as many as 1,500 eggs. Figure 7. They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back . If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. Dormant oils are typically applied during February or March but may not be very effective against armored scales. Scale insects can be controlled using horticultural oil sprays. Oleander scale; Oystershell scale; San Jose scale; Carpenterworm; Eriophyid mites; Flatheaded borers. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. Ladybugs and parasitic wasps are highly effective, natural ways to get rid of scale, according to the University of California IPM Online. Following a recommended fertility program and watering regime will promote plant health. Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. Eggs hatch during June and July and crawlers move to the lower surface of leaves where they settle feed on sap for the rest of the summer. The cottony camellia scale is most commonly reported on holly in Kentucky, but it is also found on other hosts, including yew, euonymous, maple, and hydrangea. This provides a means of scale control without reliance on sprays. Scale, mites, and mealybugs all produce this cottony, white fuzzy stuff which you’ll find on your acer leaves, especially younger ones. Cottony Maple Scale; May 18, 2005: ... but do not apply it to sugar or Japanese maple. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. Management. Crawler sprays of acephate (Orthene), befenthrin (Talstar), cyfluthrin (Tempo), insecticidal soap, malathion, or summer oil can also be applied in July when the crawlers are active. Read the product label for guidelines on plant sensitivity and temperature restriction before buying and using these products. The pest is very common in the tri-city area of Michigan at this time. Japanese maple has a height and spread of about 20 feet, but there are much smaller selections available (Fig. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. Lexington, KY 40546-0091 Cottony cushion scale is usually accompanied by blackish sooty mold growth as show on these citrus leaves. Aphids; Azalea Lace Bug (Stephanitis pyroides) Azalea Leafminer (Caloptilia azaleella) Cottony Maple Scale; Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula) ... Cottony Maple Scale. Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. Adult cottony cushion scale female with … In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as \"crawlers\". The females mature when the plant resumes growth in the spring. but have a strong preference for … This scale primarily attacks azalea and rhododendron but has also been found on andromeda, maple, arborvitae, willow, poplar, and hackberry. Cottony maple scale is most easily noticed in late spring. The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. Boxelder bugs; Diseases. (76) Photo: Whitney Cranshaw Cottony maple scale crawlers along leaf veins in the summer. Painted maple aphid ; Armored scales . If twice-stabbed lady beetle larvae or adults … Following a recommended fertility program and watering regime will promote plant health. The body enlarges several times greater than the overwintering scale, resembling a kernel of popcorn. S123 Ag Science – North During the summer, the scale enlarges by secreting wax resulting in a body several times greater than the overwintering form. They are black, flat, and oval. Scales may also … Severely infested trees look like they are covered with strings of popcorn. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. One spray during that period … Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. Cottony camellia scale and cottony maple scale are the other common species. Figure 8. There are 2 generations a year in Maryland. The distinguishing characteristic of these soft scales is the white egg sac (ovisac) produced by female scales in summer. Inappropriate timing is not only ineffective, but Buds should break a little earlier than when the plant was infested and expanded leaves should have normal color and turgor. Cottony taxus scale is a soft scale (produces a thin, waxy outer covering attached to insect) as opposed to a hard scale (produces a harder, outer shell not attached to the insect). The eggs hatch into pale yellow-green crawlers in late June or July and migrat… Research   /   During June, the inconspicuous female scales that spent the winter on the stems expand and begin producing a large, white, cottony egg sac. Its favored host is maple trees, although it has been found on a number of other species as well. Imidacloprid (Bayer Advanced Garden Tree & Shrub Insect Control Concentrate) is applied as a drench around the root zone of infested plants. In early summer mature females begin to secrete white, waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs in which they lay as many as 1,500 eggs. The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. 1). Japanese maple scales small size, ability to blend in, and long crawler emergence period make it difficult to control. A variety of natural and synthetic insecticides are labeled for use as sprays to control scale crawlers on landscape trees and shrubs. ... Cottony maple scale; Spider mites . ... Cottony maple scales commonly infest silver maple but can feed on several species including other maples, boxelder, basswood, birch, elm, and linden. Timing pesticide application to the crawler stage is very important. This is due in part to the protection from contact insecticides provided by the waxy coverings over immobile, mature scales. Identify cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis), the most common scale insect species to infest maple trees, by their adult female scales with cotton-like egg sacks on their hind ends. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. There is one generation each year. Figure 9. Cottony cushion scale outbreaks have been observed following use of this insecticide because the vedalia beetles were removed and the insecticide didn’t control the pest. Soft scales feed in vascular components of plants. Aphids. ... Chinese holly and jasmine although it can infest English ivy, euonymous, hydrangea, maple, mulberry, pittosporum, and rhododendron. Once settled on the plant, they begin to secrete a covering and are protected by it. Cottony maple scales commonly infest silver maple but can feed on several species including other maples, boxelder, basswood, birch, elm, and linden. The cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. 2) Cottony camellia scale is also known as Cottony taxus scale Anthracnose; Bacterial leaf … Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. These products may burn the foliage of sensitive plants, such as Japanese maple, so check the label for information about the plant species that you intend to treat. The cottony maple scale ( Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Cottony maple scale over-winters as immature females (nymphs) on twigs and branches. Its favored host is maple trees, although it has been found on a number of other species as well. Pests and disorders of Acer spp. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. Dr. Subba Reddy PalliDepartment Chair & State EntomologistS-225 Agricultural Science Center NorthLexington, KY 40546-0091859.257.7450entchair@uky.edu, UK Entomology: Vision, Mission, & Core Values, Nancy Cox, Ph.D. Severely infested trees look like they are covered with strings of popcorn. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. ... Perhaps the most common is cottony maple scale. ... such as Japanese maple, so check the label for information about the plant species that you intend to treat. The overwintering form of the cottony maple scale is a small, brown, flattened 1/8 inch long scale attached to the bark of twigs and small branches. 1). Large amounts of … While conspicuous, P. innumerabilis infestations usually have little impact on established trees. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Scales are usually controlled with horticultural oil sprays. Scale control can be challenging and may need to be repeated over several seasons. Maple leaf and flowers. As they grow and develop, the produce honeydew, excess water and sugar exudates, on the leaves. In early fall, the male scales emerge as tiny winged insects that search around for females to mate with. Whiteflies; Nursery. Applications must target newly hatched scale crawlers which are active in June and July. Description The overwintering form of the cottony maple scale is a small, brown, flattened 1/8 inch long scale attached to the bark of twigs and small branches. Residential Recommendation Skip to Residential Recommendation. Pulvinaria innumerabilis (cottony maple scale) is a small, flattened, brown scale insect about 1/8" long. .• Insecticidal Sprays Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect. Soaps leave no residue so repeated applications may be needed for some pests. Pulvinaria innumerabilis (cottony maple scale) is a small, flattened, brown scale insect about 1/8" long. In landscape and forested settings, Japanese maple can incur scale insect damage, particularly from cottony maple scale. Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. Pulvinaria innumerabilis . Crawlers settle on… Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. This water soluble insecticide is taken up by the roots and transported throughout the plant where it is ingested by sap feeding insects. This ¼ to ½ inch roundish sac looks like a cotton ball and is quite conspicuous, especially when there are many scales on the host plant. Cottony maple scale is being found in DuPage, Livingston, and Grundy counties, on silver maple, sugar maple, honeylocust, green ash, and hawthorn. Highly refined supreme, superior, or summer oils can be used on many trees and shrubs during the growing season. (76) Photo: John Davidson be controlled as crawlers and immatures. Please check with your local county agent or regulatory official before using any pesticide mentioned in this publication. They spend the winter in an immature stage on twigs or branches and complete development in June when the egg sacs appear. However, in large numbers they can cause premature leaf drop and twig dieback. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. Cottony maple scale, adult females with egg sacs on twigs. Heavy infestations can cause leaves to turn yellow to light green and may cause stunted leaf growth. The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. However, it may need to be applied several weeks before crawlers are active for best results. Dean The insect forms a cottony mass on the lower sides of branches. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up to 5mm wide and 12mm long. ENTFACT-427: Cottony Maple Scale  |  Download PDF. Cottony maple cushion scale belong to the soft bodied type. As its name suggests, cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) affects mostly maple trees (predominantly silver and red maples). Extension   /   Invertebrates. Crawlers are very susceptible to control measures as they move over plant surfaces to find a feeding spot. Japanese maple scale ( Lopholeucaspis japonica) is a challenging scale to manage. but have a strong preference for Silver Maple. They secrete the white, cottony masses beneath which, they lay 500 or more eggs in late May to early June. Sooty mold and shiny leaves should gradually disappear from plants that were infested with soft scales. They are also called cottony taxus scales as this scale is a fairly common pest of yew. Insecticidal soaps are long chain fatty acids that kill susceptible insects through direct contact. A variety of natural and synthetic insecticides are labeled for use … A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Pest description and crop damage The cottony maple scale is one of the largest soft scales. Pulvinaria innumerabilis Pest description and damage Mature cottony maple scale are small, flat, oval, brown insects 0.25 to 0.375 inch in diameter. The use of some products may not be legal in your state or country. While the residual life of these products is generally longer than oils and soaps, timing, coverage, and precautions on damage to some plant species are very similar to those for oils and soaps. Lady beetle adults and larvae can be seen but mites and parasitic wasps are very difficult to see. You can conserve natural enemies by using insecticidal soaps and oils which have limited impact on beneficial species in comparison to other control alternatives. Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. ... Dormant-oil treatments control overwintering female nymphs on most hosts (except sugar and Japanese maple) after leaf drop in the fall and before budbreak in the spring. It is also known to be able to survive on other deciduous trees and shrubs including honey and black locust, white ash, euonymus, oak, boxelder, dogwood, hackberry, sycamore, linden, beech, elm, willow, basswood, poplar, rose and sumac. Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. Consequently, they may not be effective where several layers of scale coverings have accumulated. Dead soft scales often fall off of the plant. They spend the winter in an immature stage on twigs or branches and complete development … The insect forms a cottony mass on the lower sides of branches. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pulvinaria_innumerabilis&oldid=891399079, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 April 2019, at 18:27. At that time, the twice-stabbed lady beetle adults will be under loose bark and not harmed by the spray. Like horticultural oils, they require thorough coverage. Cottony maple scale nymphs are small, flat, oval insects that crawl on leaves and attache themselves to the undersides of leaves. CAUTION! Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. The multiple trunks are muscular-looking, picturesque, grey and show nicely when lit up at night. Immature forms (crawlers) are flattened and brown to yellowish green in color; however, the conspicuous, cottony egg sac of the mature female is two to three times the length of the scale body, or up to 6 mm. Well-timed applications can eradicate the scale larvae. 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