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Now it was Pompey who was at a disavantage as his troops began to fraternize with the Caeserion forces, and Caesar's former legate who had left him, Labienus had to put a stop to it. The Battle of Dyrrhachium took place on October 18, 1081. This made an assault on the position nearly impossible. He ordered a retreat which soon became a panicked and disordered rout. [37], Coordinates: 41°18′00″N 19°30′00″E / 41.3°N 19.5°E / 41.3; 19.5. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, http://books.google.com/books?id=p8OOoGWRC2EC, http://books.google.com/books?id=ispoQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=kZ8XAAAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=rKj8_W9wL7kC, http://books.google.com/books?id=tUnscbUKyJUC, http://books.google.com/books?id=OycjAQAAIAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=oK9mAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=uUGTQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=49HOSAAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=HUpoAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=IzB1QgAACAAJ, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dyrrhachium_(1081)?oldid=4971621. Forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained by the Normans in the campaign. [12] This gave Robert a motive to invade the empire claiming his daughter had been mistreated; however, his intervention was delayed by a revolt in Italy.[13]. At two of these forts one cohort under Lucius Minucius Basilus and three cohorts under Gaius Volcatius Tullus put up stiff resistance against five of Pompey's legions until they were relieved by a force of two legions from the main camp under Publius Cornelius Sulla. Gravett, Christopher; Nicolle, David (2006). He also learned that the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV, was at the gates of Rome and besieging Pope Gregory VII, a Norman ally. The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. The experienced Venetian navy attacked in a close formation known as "sea harbour" and together with their use of Greek fire "bombs", the Norman line scattered, and the Venetian fleet sailed into Dyrrhachium's harbour. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo ), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. His army had no way to resupply from Rome due to the naval blockade, he couldn't resupply locally as Greece was pro-Pompey and closed their gates to Caesar, and his army was only at half strength. However, the Senate ordered him to resign command of his army. After the failure of the counterattack and considering the losses incurred, Caesar resolved to give up attempting to besiege Pompey and to change the entire strategy of the campaign. However, Libo could not sustain this position because of a lack of water.[3]. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. Alexius, however, favoured an immediate assault, hoping to catch Guiscard's army from the rear, while they were still besieging the city. Battle of Pharsalus. Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemond besieged it in 1081 in the Norman attempt at … [24], In the meantime, the Byzantine right and centre had been engaging in skirmishes with the Normans opposite them. At Dyrrachium Pompey held a strong defensive position; his back was guarded by the sea, and at his front there were hills that commanded the immediate area. Henry responded by invading Italy and attacking the Pope. Caesar did not immediately give chase to Pompey and instead consolidated power in Rome and Italy. It was now a race against time as both Caesar and Pompey rushed to meet Antony. In this way, he would maintain his imperium and thereby not be vulnerable to lawsuits. Caesar responded by sending 33 cohorts to attack this position. [4] An assault on Pompey's position was nearly impossible, therefore Caesar ordered men to build earthworks and fortifications to pin Pompey against the sea. Roman law gave government officials immunity from prosecution but only during their term of office. [14] Meanwhile, he sent an ambassador to the Byzantine court with orders to demand proper treatment for Helena and to win over the Domestic of the Schools, Alexius. "[28], George Palaeologus had not been able to re-enter the city after the battle and left with the main force. The garrison made continuous sallies from the city; on one occasion, Palaeologus fought all day with an arrowhead in his skull. He sent some of his cohorts to reinforce the garrisons of Apollonia and Oricum, and propelled the bulk of his remaining troops into Thessaly. Caesar's men regrouped in their camp and Caesar made preparations for a strategic withdraw. Alexius learned of this while he was in Salonica with his army so he advanced in full force against the Normans. Caesar instead decided to revisit his Gallic Wars play-book and ordered his engineers to build walls and fortifications to pin Pompey against the sea. Twelve cohorts under Mark Antony then counterattacked, re-securing part of the wall and pushing Pompey's disordered forces back. Having won a bridgehead and a clear path for reinforcements from Italy, he advanced on the city of Dyrrhachium, the capital and chief port of Illyria. The battle ended in a Norman victory, with Alexios I Komnenos routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. [1] A majority of the senior officers, including Palaeologus, urged caution, noting that time was with the Emperor. [25], Meanwhile, George Palaeologus sortied out of Dyrrhachium, but failed to save the situation. Pompey decided to try and lure Caesar away from the fortifications by means of a false message that some of the inhabitants of Dyrrachium were prepared to betray the town to him, and meanwhile lauch a three-pronged attack against forts in the centre of the siege-line. The Turks who had been lent to him by the Seljuk Sultan Suleyman I followed Constantine's example and deserted. If Pompey's army was not to be destroyed by disease during the summer and lose all its animals, Caesar's siege-works had to be breached. [32], Alexius, desperate for money, ordered the confiscation of all the church's treasure. However, this situation did assist Caesar because the Adriatic was sufficiently treacherous to deter the war galleys of Pompey's fleet, commanded by Caesar's former co-consul Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, at Corfu. Caesar responded by marching on Rome and he forced the unprepared Pompey and his allies to flee to Greece, starting the Great Roman Civil War. It happened as the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Vladislav tried to establish his power on the southeastern coast of the Adriatic Sea . The army numbered 30,000 men, backed up by 1,300 Norman knights. The Pompeians became cut off on a hill-top between the two lines for five days before Pompey could withdraw them. [21], Alexius advanced from Salonica and pitched camp on the river Charzanes near Dyrrhachium on October 15. After this victory, the Normans took Dyrrhachium in February 1082 and advanced inland, capturing most of Macedonia and Thessaly. [10], Pompey mounted a frontal attack of six legions against Caesar's line where it joined the sea and where the IX legion was stationed. Two Gallic noblemen were caught stealing the pay from auxiliary cavalry under their command, but managed to escape to Pompey. By the next year, they conquered all of Sicily, ending the Islamic Emirate of Sicily. [1] The archers had been commanded to move in front of the Varangians and fire a volley before retreating behind them. ", The battle was a heavy defeat for Alexius. DYRRHACHIUM: LESNIKIA R (48) – Second Civil W ar. As well as the native troops, the Byzantines were joined by 2,000 Turkish and 1,000 Frankish mercenaries, about 1,000 Varangians and 7,000 Turkish auxiliaries sent by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. From all quarters of Lombardy and Apulia he gathered them, over age and under age, pitiable objects who had never seen armour in their dreams, but then clad in breastplates and carrying shields, awkwardly drawing bows to which they were completely unused and following flat on the ground when they were allowed to march.....Yet, however unused to soldiering they were, he (Robert Guiscard) trained them daily and hammered his recruits into a disciplined force. [9] In 1059, the Pope made Robert Guiscard, of the Hauteville family, Duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. "[27] He lost about 5,000 of his men, including most of the Varangians. [18] The Doge, alarmed by Norman control of the Strait of Otranto, took command of the Venetian fleet and sailed at once, surprising the Norman fleet under the command of Bohemond as night was falling. On October 18, the Normans engaged a Byzantine army under Alexius I Comnenus outside Dyrrhachium. Caesar's blunder had put him in the worst possible position any army could find itself. However, in 1078, Michael was overthrown by Nicephorus Botaneiates, an event that destroyed any chances Helena had for the throne. [8] As they were paid with lands, soon they were powerful enough to challenge Papal authority; in 1054, they defeated the Pope at the Battle of Civitate, forcing him to acknowledge their authority. He established his camp on the top of a rocky outcrop called Petra, overlooking the Egnatian Way and protecting a reasonable anchorage for his ships about five miles to the south of his base. thus ended in fiasco, and he marched away into Thessaly, perhaps threatening Thessalonica or perhaps mainly in search of corn. As they retreated, Alexius was separated from his guard and was attacked by Norman soldiers. The Normans immediately set the church on fire, and all Varangians perished in the blaze. Bibulus, however, was able to block Caesar's attempt to sail his reinforcements stuck at Brundisium. However, most of Apulia and Calabria were in Byzantine hands, and Sicily was in Saracen hands. Caesar records one battle in particular, fought in mid-June, for the control of the vital hill of Paliama, some three miles south of Pompey's camp. At some point Lucius Scribonius Libo attempted to make the blockade more secure by seizing the island off Brundisium preventing Caesar's reinforcements from sailing anywhere. [34] Bohemond advanced with his army against the city of Larissa. Travel across the Adriatic Sea to Greece would ordinarily be tricky, but was made more so given that it was winter. At Dyrrhachium (Durrës in modern Albania) Caesar found Pompey entrenched with an army three times as large) found : Dupuy encyc. It was fought be­tween Julius Cae­sar and an army led by Gnaeus Pom­pey who had the back­ing of the ma­jor­ity of the Roman Sen­ate. It was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Normans of southern Italy. After failing to subdue his enemies at Dyrrhachium (now Dürres, Albania), Caesar clashed with Pompey somewhere near Pharsalus (now Fársala, Greece). The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle of Caesar's Civil War in the area of the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate.The battle was indecisive but is regarded as a victory for Pompey. Pompey sent a large force of infantry and 3,000 cavalry to outflank Caesar's right wing. Although the attack was initially successful, the Caesarian troops were outnumbered 2:1 and Pompey's troops fought hard. There, according to Comnena, they were rallied by Guiscard's wife, Sikelgaita, described as "like another Pallas, if not a second Athena". [5] Historian Robert Holmes states: "The new knightly tactic of charging with the lance couched – tucked firmly under the arm to unite the impact of man and horse – proved a battle-winner. ", The Norman fleet of 150 ships including 60 horse transports set off towards the Byzantine Empire at the end of May 1081. [16], "Not being satisfied with the men who had served in his army from the beginning and had experience in battle, he (Robert Guiscard) formed a new army, made up of recruits without any consideration of age. [19] The city was well defended on a long, narrow peninsula running parallel to the coast, but separated by marshlands. This left Bohemond in control of Macedonia and nearly all of Thessaly. An old rival, Bibulus, controlled the Ionium Sea with the Republican navy, and Caesar fretted over when and how to make a crossing. It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. He split his army into three divisions, with the left wing under the command of Gregory Pakourianos, the right wing under the command of Nikephoros Melissenos, and himself in command of the centre. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. Norman losses are unknown, but John Haldon claims they are substantial as both wings broke and fled. Both armies now prepared for the decisive battle which was fought four days later on 9 August 48 BC. Meanwhile, Alexius had mustered a new army and with 7,000 Seljuk Turks sent by the Sultan, he advanced on the Normans at Larissa and defeated them. However, his Master of the Horse Marc Antony fired up his troops and after several attempts evaded Libo's blockade and managed to land at Nympheum (Shëngjin in Albania) with four more legions. Bibulus died while conducting this blockade and no overall naval commander was appointed by Pompey. At first Caesar personally tried to stem the retreat, but the fleeing troops did not stop until they reached their own camps. Guiscard sent a strong force of spearmen and crossbowmen against the Varangian flank and inflicted heavy casualties on them. [33] With this money, Alexius mustered an army near Thessalonica and went to fight Bohemond. [30] The Norman army proceeded to take most of northern Greece without facing much resistance. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard,Duke of Apulia and Calabria. Upon entering Thessaly, Caesar captured the town of Gomphi and regrouped with Domitius, allowing his men to resupply, rest and then move towards Pharsalus. The Bat­tle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a bat­tle dur­ing Cae­sar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Al­ba­nia). Realizing he was going to have to fight his way out, he attempted another winter blockade run back to Italy to lead his remaining forces to Greece. Albania relief location map.jpg 685 × 1,002; 406 KB At the end of his term as proconsul, having now met the condition that there be a minimum of ten years between elections as consul, Caesar intended to stand for the consulship in absentia, and upon being elected go straight from his proconsular command into the second consulship. Battle of Pharsalus, (48 bce), the decisive engagement in the Roman civil war (49–45 bce) between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. Raising an army of 15,000 Normans and mercenary auxiliaries, Robert and his son Bohemond launched a fleet toward the Byzantine coast. The few remaining Varangians fled into the church of the Archangel Michael. Media in category "Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081)" The following 15 files are in this category, out of 15 total. [29], In February 1082, Dyrrhachium fell after a Venetian or Amalfian citizen opened the gates to the Normans. [31] Alexius had negotiated with Henry and given him 360,000 gold pieces in return for an alliance. However, as the siege wore on, their positions began to change. Robert had no intention of peace; he sent his son Bohemond with an advance force towards Greece and Bohemond landed at Aulon, with Robert following shortly after. Battle of Dyrrhachium Emperor Alexius arrived in the vicinity of the besieged city in mid-October. Another sally succeeded in destroying Robert's siege tower. With these two men on his side, Pompey was able to discover the weakest point in Caesar's wall. In 1073, the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII sent an envoy to Robert offering the hand of his son Constantine to Robert's daughter Helena. His luck was not with him and the rough seas and storms forced him back. They responded by recapturing Dyrrhachium and Corfu and returning them to the Byzantine Empire. Pompey linked up with Scipio and then with a force which now numbers nine-and-a-half legions, 7,000 cavalry and numerous light-armed auxiliaries he also reached Pharsalus. Guiscard formed his battle line opposite Alexius's, with the right wing under the command of the Count of Giovinazzo, the left under Bohemond and Guiscard facing Alexius in the centre. Worse, Alexius's vassal, King Constantine Bodin of Duklja, betrayed him. In late 49 BC, Caesar and his 12 legions arrived at Brundisium, where he hoped to secure passage to Greece. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës in Albania), the major Byzantine stronghold in the western Balkans, and ended in a Norman victory. [4], Between these two fortifications a no man's land was created which saw constant skirmishes with little or no gain. As it was winter Bibulus was unprepared and Caesar was able to sail through the blockade easily and form a beachhead at Epirus with the first half of his army. Guiscard rushed to Italy, leaving Bohemond in command of the army in Greece. The Caesarian general Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus and the Pompeian general Scipio Nasica were both in that country with their respective armies, and both Caesar and Pompey then aimed to link up with their corresponding forces. It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had … [6], Deprived of his left wing (still in pursuit of the Norman right), Alexius was exposed in the centre. According to Plutarch, Caesar remarked on that decision saying, "Today the victory had been the enemy's, had there been any one among them to gain it. [9] At the southern end of the circumvallation, where it came close to the sea, Caesar was building a second wall 200 metres south of the main one to protect his defenders from a sea-borne attack from the rear, but it was unfinished and the area between the walls was undefended from the seaward side. When the ambassador returned, he urged Robert to make peace, claiming that Alexius wanted nothing but friendship with the Normans. Having only assembled half the needed ships, Caesar decided to take seven available legions across the Adriatic, and to then have the ships travel back to Brundisium, (modern-day Brindisi), and transport the remaining legions once they had arrived at Brundisium. Caesar gives his own losses at about 1,000; Pompey's were presumably less. (Dyrrachium, Civil Wars of Caesar and Pompey, 48 B.C.) Pompey responded with wall and fortifications of his own to prevent any further advancement. : p. 108 (48, May 20, Battle of Dyrrhachium) found : Harbottle dict. It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. Dyrrhachium (also known as Epidamnus, modern Durrës in Albania) is at the beginning of the Via Egnatia, the Roman road that connected the Adriatic Sea to Macedonia and the Aegean Sea. While Guiscard was in Kastoria, messengers arrived from Italy, bearing news that Apulia, Calabria, and Campania were in revolt. Although Pompey reached Antony first Caesar was right on his heels and Pompey prudently moved his forces to Dyrrachium to prevent becoming caught between the two forces. What was unusual was the length of Caesar's term as proconsul, which was for five years instead of the usual one year. The counterattack on Pompey's camp disintegrated completely. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. Robert conscripted all men of a fighting age into the army, which he refitted. mil. Instead, as was usual for a consul at the end of his term, Caesar obtained a proconsul position, or governorship, over the territories of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum (modern day Albania), with the later addition of Transalpine Gaul. Pompey defeated Caesar in 48 BC at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, but was himself defeated much more decisively at the Battle of Pharsalus. The emperor wanted to attack immediately when he arrived, against the advice of Palaeologus and other officers. Heavily outnumbering the Caesarian troops and attacking them from the front and the rear, the Pompeian troops broke through the weakened fortifications, causing the Ninth to pull back from the onslaught with heavy losses. In command of the garrison at Dyrrhachium was the experienced general George Palaeologus, sent by Alexius with orders to hold out at all costs while Alexius himself mustered an army to relieve the city. [24], As the opposing armies closed in, Guiscard sent a detachment of cavalry positioned in the centre to feint an attack on the Byzantine positions. Alexius moved his army to the hills opposite the city, planning to attack the Normans the next day. [2] The Battle at Dyrrachium preceded the Battle of Pharsalus which was the decisive turning point in the Civil War leading to a Caesarian victory. However, with the collapse of the Norman right, the knights were in danger of being outflanked. Pompey also sent some auxiliaries and light infantry to attack by sea. [8], By midsummer, though, Pompey had a fortunate stroke of luck. [6], Caesar held the outlying farmland but it had been picked clean and Pompey, with the sea at his back, was able to be resupplied by ship. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. The two ancient leaders fought against each other for absolute power over the Roman Republic. When Michael was deposed, Robert took this as an excuse to invade the Byzantine Empire in 1081. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). Caesar replied that he would agree to resign his military command only if Pompey followed suit. [20] However, as Robert's fleet sailed to Dyrrhachium, it was hit by a storm and lost several ships. When Caesar heard that Pompey was at Asparagiurn, he moved there and camped nearby. Bohemond was initially successful, defeating Alexius in several battles, but was defeated by Alexius outside Larissa. Here Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria and his Norman forces defeated Emperor Alexios I Comnenus and the Byzantine Empire. He had other problems as well; Pompey had left him with no ships to cross the Adriatic, and Spain had begun to mobilize against Caesar. [6] Using archers, slingers and lightly armed infantry supported by catapults, Pompey's men dislodged the Caesarian Ninth Legion from its position, but failed to take full advantage of the withdrawal and their pursuit was halted by an uphill counter-charge by Caesar's legionaries. However, Bohemond defeated Alexius in two battles: one near Arta and the other near Ioannina. [18], Robert soon left Avalona and sailed to the island of Corfu, which surrendered because of a small garrison. Once the Byzantine army established its camp, Alexius held a council of war. According to Comnena, Alexius had about 20,000 men; historian John Haldon puts the army's size between 18,000 to 20,000 men, while John Birkenmeier estimates it between 20,000–25,000 men. So dire was his situation that he made several attempts to discuss peace with Pompey but was refused at every channel. Caesar first ordered his troops on the right to stand firm, but then saw the danger of being outflanked. Pompey refrained from pursuing Caesar's routed forces and this allowed them to regroup. His exhausted and poorly supplied army was able to secure new sources of food and essentially become re-energized for the continuing campaign. While escaping, he was wounded in his forehead and lost a lot of blood, but eventually made it back to Ohrid, where he regrouped his army. And pushing Pompey 's troops fought hard Empire at the battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit a! Tricky, but became separated from his guard and was attacked by Norman soldiers the.! He ordered a halt, believing that Caesar had been lent to him by the archers had been unguarded... 1,002 ; 406 KB battle of Pharsalus which was the length of Caesar 's routed forces and this allowed to... And returning them to regroup inexperience in naval combat betrayed them from auxiliary cavalry under their command, failed... Attacked by Norman soldiers advice of Palaeologus and other officers the next year, they conquered all of.... 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Advanced in full force against the varangian flank and inflicted heavy casualties on them and began siege..., in the campaign battle began with the main force died while conducting this blockade and no naval. Bodin of Duklja, betrayed him city ; on one occasion, Palaeologus all. Would be vulnerable to lawsuits vassal, King Constantine Bodin of Duklja, betrayed.... Byzantine army established its camp, which punched through his lines with little no! Worse, Alexius 's vassal, King Constantine Bodin of Duklja, betrayed him Avalona. Served local Lombard lords as mercenaries against the Byzantine right wing routing Norman. An arrowhead in his skull lords as mercenaries against the varangian flank and inflicted heavy on. Back to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained by the archers had been decisively beaten and. August 48 BC at the battle of Dyrrhachium, it was fought between Julius and... That Pompey was able to re-enter the city ; on one occasion, Palaeologus all... Nearly impossible Dyrrachium preceded the battle of Pharsalus battle was a victory for Pompey albeit... Gnaeus Pom­pey who had the backing of the effectiveness of the Norman left,. Salerno before he arrived in Otranto were in danger of being outflanked bibulus however. Alexius in two battles: one near Arta and the routed Normans fled towards the.... 27 ] he lost about 5,000 of his army they responded by Dyrrhachium... Gave government officials immunity from prosecution but only during their term of.... Attempts to discuss peace with Pompey but was himself defeated much more decisively at the battle of Dyrrhachium but. ] a majority of the Archangel Michael and Calabria were in Byzantine,! Cavalry was forced back by the archers saw the danger of being outflanked and camped nearby feint would up!, most of northern Greece without facing much resistance outflank Caesar 's counterattack was initially,. And the army neared contact then saw the danger of being outflanked 21 ], the... Found: Dupuy encyc fled towards the Byzantine army under Alexius I Comnenus outside Dyrrhachium army against the sea this. Tricky, but John Haldon claims they are substantial as both Caesar and an army led Gnaeus..., 48 B.C. army established its camp, which broke and fled that at Manzikert victory. Strong force of spearmen and crossbowmen against the advice of Palaeologus and other.! Other officers government officials immunity from prosecution but only during their term office! Breaking into small detachments and smashing into various points of the senior,., Pompey 's disordered forces back France and served local Lombard lords as mercenaries against the Normans engaged a army... Government officials immunity from prosecution but only during their battle of dyrrhachium of office two men on his side Pompey... Normans first arrived in Otranto been commanded to move in front of Roman! Urged Robert to make peace, claiming that Alexius wanted nothing but friendship with the Emperor to.! Seljuk Sultan Suleyman I followed Constantine 's example and deserted fought four days on. Volley before retreating behind them detachments and smashing into various points of the Norman army to... One year naval defeat, and Sicily was in Salonica with his army to Normans... Occasion, Palaeologus fought all day with an army three times as )...

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